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## Words and terms

In this chapter we have compiled the most important words and terms that appear in the B class driver's licence theory.

Click on underlined words and terms that you want to read more about.

### Contents

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | K | L | M | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W

### A

ABS (abs-bromsar) – Help system which automatically reduces the braking force on wheels which are about to lock. When there is no longer any risk of the wheel locking up, the system increases the braking force again. This process is repeated several times per second, which helps you maintain steering control of the car. ABS means anti-lock braking system.

Accelerating overtaking (accelererande omkörning) – Overtaking manoeuvre where you drive behind another vehicle and, once there is a sufficient gap in oncoming traffic, accelerate and overtake it.

Acceleration lane (accelerationsfält) – Special lane used for access to most motorways and some clearways. You use the acceleration lane to match your speed to that of the motorway traffic and to find a safe gap in traffic to slip into.

Accident-prone drivers (olycksfåglar) – The 15% of the population who are involved in about 50% of all traffic accidents.

Aggravated drunk driving (grovt rattfylleri) – Serious criminal offence. The limit for aggravated drunk driving is 1.0 per mille blood alcohol. However, a driver with less than 1.0 per mille blood alcohol may be found guilty of aggravated drunk driving if he or she has caused an accident, or has been driving dangerously and risking an accident.

Aquaplaning (vattenplaning) – When a vehicle's tyres are no longer able to divert surface water from their path, leading to a layer of water building up in front of and under the tyres, effectively "lifting" them and removing their contact with the road.

### B

Basic speed limits (bashastighet) – If no speed limit is specified, or if a road sign with a speed limit is destroyed or covered by snow, then the basic speed limit applies. The basic speed limit is 50 km/h in densely built-up areas and 70 km/h outside of densely built-up areas.

On many roads other speed limits apply, but they are then clearly indicated on a road sign or similar device.

Biofuel (biobränsle) – Renewable fuels (for example, ethanol and biogas) produced by living organisms (biomass). Unlike fossil fuels – such as petrol, diesel, natural gas and coal – which take millions of years to form, biomass is constantly being created.

Brake lights (bromsljus) – Two, or sometimes three, strong red lights on the rear of the car that turn on automatically when you push the brake pedal.

Brake servo (bromsservo) – Help system which makes it easier to brake when the engine is running. If the brake servo is not working properly, or while being towed with the engine turned off, you have to push much harder on the brake pedal to achieve maximum braking power. Also called vacuum servo.

Braking distance (bromssträcka) – The distance the car travels from when you first apply the brakes until the car comes to a complete stop.

### C

Carriageway (körbana) – The part of a road that is intended for traffic with motor vehicles. The driveway is usually divided into different lanes. Also called roadway.

Catalytic converter (katalysator) – Purification device which purifies about 80-95% of the harmful substances in exhaust emissions, converting them to carbon dioxide and water.

Circulatory shock (cirkulationssvikt) – Life-threatening condition that can affect a seriously injured person who has lost a lot of blood. Circulatory shock means that blood circulation is so poor that it can lead to oxygen deficiency and cell damage.

Clearway (motortrafikled) – Road that is very similar to a motorway, and is regulated in the same way. However, its design differs in some regards. In Sweden, all clearways are free of junctions and are often, but not always, free of oncoming traffic. Also called dual carriageway and two-lane expressway.

Crumple zones (deformationszoner) – The front and rear parts of the car that are developed to collapse during a collision, so that the sequence of events is slowed down. In a frontal collision, the car's front crumple zone is compressed to absorb the energy from the impact within the outer parts of the vehicle, rather than being directly transferred to the occupants of the car. In a rear-end collision the car's rear crumple zone is compressed.

Cycle crossing (cykelöverfart) – A kind of "pedestrian crossing" for cyclists and moped riders (class 2).

Cycle lane (cyckelfält) – Lane on a road that only cyclists and moped riders (class 2) may use.

Cycle path (cyckelbana) – Separate or detached road for cyclists and moped riders (class 2).

Cycle passage (cykelpassage) – Part of a road that is intended to be used by cyclists and moped riders (class 2) to cross a carriageway or a cycle path.

### D

Defensive driving (defensiv körning) – Driving style which means that you drive calmly and calculatedly, without taking unnecessary risks, and with an adapted speed. It also means that you drive with good safety margins, have good supervision both forwards and backwards and that you are always ready to act.

Direct vision (direktseendet) – The 1-2% of the field of view that is used when focusing your eyes on something.

Deep learning (djupinlärning) – Leaning method that means that you strive to truly learn and understand the context and causes for a traffic rule, rather than just memorizing the rule. Through the increased knowledge gained by deep learning, you are able to better understand traffic rules and why they are designed the way they are.

Deep learning also causes you to retain new knowledge in a much better way than if you merely study to pass the theory and driving test.

Drunk driving (grovt rattfylleri) – Serious criminal offence. The limit for drunk driving is 0.2 per mille blood alcohol. However, a driver with less than 0.2 per mille blood alcohol may be found guilty of drunk driving if he or she has not been able to drive in a safe manner.

Duty to give way (väjningsplikt) – When you have a duty to give way you must clearly communicate your intention to give way by slowing down well in advance, and if necessary, stopping completely.

Duty to stop (stopplikt) – When you have a duty to stop, you must stop completely and give way before proceeding. This applies regardless of whether there is any traffic on the intersecting road or not. The rules are designed in this way to ensure that drivers who have a duty to stop really do so and check traffic both ways before proceeding.

When you have a duty to stop, you should do so at the stop line or, if there is no line, just before, but not on, the intersecting road – where you can be clearly seen and have a clear view.

### E

Economical driving (sparsam körning) – Fuel efficient and environmentally friendly driving style, which includes planning your driving, skipping gears and engine braking whenever possible. Also called energy-efficient driving.

Electronic stability control (ESC) (antisladdsystem) – Help system that detects and assists when the car is about to start skidding. When the system detects loss of steering control, it automatically brakes individual wheels, preventing the skid. Also referred to as electronic stability program (ESP) and dynamic stability control (DSC).

Emergency wheel (nödhjul) – Wheel that is lighter and narrower than regular wheels (to save weight and space). Emergency wheels are designed for short distances, usually 80 kilometres or less, and relatively low speeds, usually 80 km/h at most.

Engine braking (motorbromsning) – Energy efficient method of slowing the car without supplying fuel to the engine. In order to engine brake effectively release the accelerator at 1,500-1,600 rpm and downshift when the engine speed drops to 1,200-1,300 rpm. Repeat this process as long as it is needed and is possible.

### F

Flying inspection (flygande inspektion) – When a vehicle is stopped and inspected on site. Flying inspections may be carried out by police officers or vehicle inspectors who have been appointed by Polismyndigheten (the Swedish Police Authority).

Flying overtaking (flygande omkörning) – Overtaking manoeuvre where you approach and overtake a slower vehicle in front of you at a significantly higher speed than it is travelling at.

Fog lights (dimljus) – Strong lights which are primarily intended to improve visibility in foggy conditions. Fog lights can also be suitable during heavy rain or snowfall.

In daylight you may replace dipped headlights or daytime running lights with fog lights. In darkness you may only replace dipped headlights with fog lights in the event of fog, heavy rain or snowfall. Fog lights must not be combined with either dipped headlights or daytime running lights.

Friction tyres (friktionsdäck) – Another word for non-studded winter tyres.

Freezing rain (frysande regn) – Rain that looks like normal rain but freezes immediately upon contact with the road. Freezing rain can form a solid sheet of ice on the road, making it extremely slippery.

Full comprehensive insurance (helförsäkring) – Insurance policy which contains traffic insurance (trafikförsäkring), partial casco insurance (delkaskoförsäkring) and vehicle damage insurance (vagnskadeförsäkring).

The jackknife effect (fällknivsverkan) – Dangerous situation which can occur if a car with a coupled trailer brakes more effectively than the trailer. If this happens, the rear end of the trailer can, in a worst case scenario, slide to the right or the left – causing the car and trailer to fold up like a jackknife

### G

Gross weight (bruttovikt) – The actual weight of the car or the trailer at a certain moment. This means the gross weight varies depending on load and equipment.

### H

Hard shoulder (vägren) – The part of the road which is outside the carriageway. Also called verge.

### I

Indicators (blinkers/körriktningsvisare) – Flashing orange lights that must be switched on before turning or moving your vehicle sideways

### K

Kerb weight (tjänstevikt) – The weight of the car with the driver when it is unloaded and fully equipped (with tools, spare wheel, fuel, engine oil and water).

Kinetic energy (rörelseenergi) – The energy that all moving objects possess – for example, a car driving forward. The car's kinetic energy is affected both by its weight and its speed. As long as the weight or speed of the car does not change, its kinetic energy does not change either.

### L

Lane (körfält) – Part of the carriageway that is intended for traffic in one direction.

Learning by imitation (imitationsinlärning) – Learning process where you subconsciously adapt the behaviour of others. May be both negative and positive depending on whose behaviour you adapt.

Light truck (lätt lastbil) – Truck with a total weight of no more than 3,500 kg, which is primarily intended for freight transport and cannot be considered a private car or bus. Also called light goods vehicle and light lorry.

Slow-moving vehicle (långsamtgående fordon/LGF) – Vehicle designed for a maximum speed of 30, 40 or 45 km/h. Slow-moving vehicles must be equipped with an orange-red triangular-shaped sign (known as an LGF sign).

### M

Maximum load (maxlast) – The car or trailer's maximum permitted load according to the registration certificates. Keep in mind that any passengers count as load.

Microsleep (mikrosömn) – Brief, involuntary episode of sleep that is generally caused by a lack of sleep. Microsleep can be devastating behind the wheel.

Moped class 1 (moped klass 1) – Two-wheeled motor-driven vehicle designed for a maximum speed of 45 km/h.

Moped class 2 (moped klass 1) – Two-wheeled motor-driven vehicle designed for a maximum speed of 25 km/h.

### O

Over learning (överinlärning) – Leaning method where you practice manoeuvring the car until it becomes second nature. This is required in order for the technical part of your driving to become more or less automatic.

Over steering (överstyrning) – When the car turns more than you want it to. Oversteer can result in rear-end skidding which means that the car's rear tries to pass the car's front, so that the front of the car points more and more inwards.

### P

Parking lights (parkeringsljus) – Weak and energy efficient lights which you must turn on when you have parked or stopped on a road with poor visibility or insufficient lighting, so that other road users are able to see the car.

Partial casco insurance (delkaskoförsäkring) – A collective term for a variety of insurance policies that increase your protection. If you take out partial insurance you receive both traffic insurance and partial casco insurance.

Partial insurance (halvförsäkring) – Insurance policy which contains both traffic insurance (trafikförsäkring) and partial casco insurance (delkaskoförsäkring).

Pedestrian zone (gågata) – A place where all vehicle traffic must be adapted to pedestrians and where special rules apply. It is normally not allowed to drive along streets in pedestrian zones. However, drivers are allowed to cross them if they follow the rules for residential areas.

Peripheral vision (periferiseendet) – The largest part (98-99%) of the field of view. Its task is primarily to detect movement. You often perceive something on the edge of your field of view, in the periphery, but must focus your eyes, using direct vision, to truly see and understand what is happening there.

Level crossing (plankorsning) – Junction where a road crosses a railway or tramway line. Also called railway crossing, railroad crossing and train crossing.

Power steering (styrservo) – Help system that makes it easier to turn the steering wheel.

Priority road (huvudled) – A road whose users are to be given priority by those on connecting and intersecting roads.

Probability learning (sannolikhetsinlärning) – Learning process where you learn from your experiences in traffic and then make decisions based on those experiences.

Probationary period (prövotid) – The two-year period after you first obtain your licence. If your licence is revoked during this period, you will have to pass both driving tests (theory and practical) once again before a new licence can be issued. This probationary period does not apply for AM (moped) class licences.

### R

Reaction formation (reaktionsbildning) – A personality trait which occurs in some people. People with this personality trait are reserved and keep a low profile in everyday life but behave the opposite behind the steering wheel.

Reaction time (reaktionstid) – The time it takes before you apply the brakes after something unexpected happens on the road in front of you. The average driver's reaction time is one second.

Reaction distance (reaktionssträcka) – The distance the car travels from when you discover an obstacle or a hazard until you apply the brakes.

Readiness for braking (bromsberedskap) – When you place your foot above the brake pedal and are prepared and ready to brake the car at any time. When you ready yourself for braking your senses are heightened, which reduces your reaction time and thus also the car's stopping distance.

Readiness for action (handlingsberedskap) – When you are prepared and ready to manoeuvre or brake the car at any time. When you ready yourself for action your senses are heightened, which reduces your reaction time and thus also the car's stopping distance.

Rear fog lights (dimbakljus) – Red and strong rear lights whose purpose is to make the car visible from behind when visibility is reduced due to fog, heavy rain or snowfall.

Rear fog lights are very dazzling and must therefore be turned off as soon as you are convinced drivers behind have sighted you.

Registration inspection (registreringsbesiktning) – The inspection your vehicle must undergo if you alter something on it so that the information in the registration certificate is no longer correct. Your vehicle must undergo the registration inspection within one month of the alteration.

Rear lights (bakljus) – Two red lights on the rear of the car that turn on automatically when parking lights, dipped headlights or full beam headlights are on.

Reversing lights (backljus) – One or two white lights on the rear of the car that turn on automatically when the car is put in reverse.

Repression (bortträningning) – A personality trait which occurs in some people. People with this personality trait do not perceive obviously dangerous situations as risky, or simply ignore risks – especially when they are stressed.

Residential area (gångfartsområde) – A place where all vehicle traffic must be adapted to pedestrians and where special rules apply. For example, vehicles must not be driven faster than walking speed and vehicle drivers must give way to pedestrians.

### S

School crossing patrol (skolpatrull) – Operation that exists at some schools where voluntary students help children safely across the road. Members of the school crossing patrol have no authority to stop or direct motor traffic.

School transport vehicle (skolskjuts) – A vehicle, usually a bus or taxi, intended for transport to and from school for schoolchildren who have a long, difficult or dangerous way to school.

Always pass stationary school transport vehicles at low speed and with great care, especially if the vehicle's warning lights are flashing.

Selective perception (selektiv varseblivning) – The process by which your brain selects the most important impressions you need to pay attention to in any given moment.

Self-assertion (självhävdelse) – A personality trait which occurs in some people. People with this personality trait get very angry and react in dangerous ways when others make mistakes – for example in traffic.

Shock absorbers (stötdämpare) – Device that contributes to better road holding and comfort by minimizing rocking movements and impacts on the car's chassis (undercarriage).

Side force (sidkraft) – The lateral (i.e., parallel to the road surface) force produced by a vehicle tyre when cornering (taking a curve). Without side forces from the road, the front tyres cannot make the car turn. But if the driving side force on the front tyres is greater than the counteracting side force on the rear tyres, the cornering becomes unstable and potentially very dangerous.

Speed blindness (fartblindhet) – Phenomenon which means that you think that you are driving slower than you actually are. Speed blindness usually occurs after driving on a country road, motorway or clearway for a while. The biggest risk with speed blindness is that you underestimate how long it will take to lower your speed or stop the car completely.

Stopping distance (stoppsträcka) – The distance the car travels from when you discover an obstacle or a hazard until the car comes to a complete stop. The stopping distance is made up of two parts: a reaction distance and a braking distance.

Surface learning (ytinlärning) – Leaning method where you only try to memorize certain facts and knowledge with the aim of passing the theory and driving test. Even if you somehow manage to pass the tests, the ignorance and uncertainty this leads to can have serious consequences at a later time.

Supervised pedestrian crossing (bevakat övergångsställe)Pedestrian crossing where the duty to give way is regulated by traffic signals.

### T

The blind spot (döda vinkeln) – The area not covered by any mirror. You check the blind spot by briefly glancing over your shoulder (in the direction you are moving the car).

The bus rule (bussregeln) – Give way rule which means that you must slow down or stop completely on roads where the speed limit is 50 km/h or lower, if a bus driver indicates their intention to move off a bus stop.

On roads where the speed limit exceeds 50 km/h, it is the other way around: the bus driver must give way.

The exit rule (utfartsregeln) – Give way rule that applies before the priority to the right rule. The exit rule states that you must give way when exiting certain places, such as parking lots and petrol stations.

The priority to the right rules (högerregeln) – Right-of-way system in which the driver of a vehicle is required to give way to vehicles approaching from the right at junctions.

The zipper merge (blixtlåsprincipen) – Principle that is usually applied when two lanes merge into one. The zipper merge requires mutual consideration and means that one vehicle at a time from each lane is allowed to proceed – first one from the right, then one from the left, then one from the right and so on.

The three-second rule (tresekundersregeln) – Rule of thumb that can help you maintain a safe distance to the vehicle in front, if the road surface conditions are good.

The three-second rule means that it should take you three seconds to reach the point where the vehicle in front of you was when you started counting.

Total weight (totalvikt) – The weight of the car with the driver, tools, spare wheel, fuel, engine oil and water plus the car's maximum permitted load. Kerb weight + maximum load =.total weight.

Tow ball weight (kultryck) – The weight a trailer coupling device exerts on a car's tow bar.

Traffic insurance (trafikförsäkring) – Compulsory insurance policy that covers many of the costs that may arise after an accident, such as personal injuries to drivers, passengers and others, damage to vehicles that you have collided with, and damage to property such as lamp posts and traffic devices. Traffic insurance, however, does not cover damage to your car.

Tread depth (mönsterdjup) – The depth of the grooves on the tyres. The tyre tread depth is a decisive factor for grip.

Summer tyres must have a tread depth of at least 1.6 millimetres. To get the best grip, you should replace summer tyres when the tread depth has been worn down to 3 millimetres

Winter tyres used in winter road conditions must have a tread depth of at least 3 millimetres. To get the best grip, you should replace winter tyres when the tread depth has been worn down to 4-5 millimetres.

Tunnel vision (tunnelseende) – Phenomenon that occurs at high speeds that makes your field of observation narrower and reduces your ability to detect movements in the periphery.

Tunnel vision can both occur and worsen because of fatigue, alcohol, stress, narcotics, inappropriate medication or diseases such as migraines.

### U

Understeering (understyrning) – When the car turns less than you want it to and strives to go straight ahead in curves.

Unsupervised pedestrian crossing (obevakat övergångsställe) – Pedestrian crossing that is not equipped with traffic signals. As a driver, you must give way to pedestrians who have entered or are about to enter an unsupervised pedestrian crossing.

### V

Vehicle damage insurance (vagnskadeförsäkring) – Insurance policy that provides compensation for road-traffic accident damages, even if you are at fault, or if no other driver was at fault. For example, you are still covered if you drive off the road or collide with a deer.

Vision Zero (Nollvisionen) – Road safety initiative adopted by the Swedish Parliament in 1997. The long-term objective of Vision Zero is that no one shall be killed or seriously injured in traffic.

### W

Warning triangle (varningstriangel) – Red triangle that should be put out behind the car if you are forced to make an emergency stop in a place where stopping or parking is prohibited. You must keep at least one warning triangle in your car.

Wheel balancing (hjulbalansering) – When the wheels are adjusted so that they can rotate without vibrating at certain speeds.

Incorrectly balanced wheels can cause the steering wheel to start shaking at a certain speed and unevenly worn patches to occur on the tyres.

Wheel alignment (hjulinställning) – A corrective mechanical alteration where the wheels' angles are adjusted so that they are perpendicular to the ground and parallel to each other.

Incorrectly aligned wheels can cause the car to car pull diagonally when driving on a straight road and the outer edges of the front tyres to wear faster.

Winter tyres (vinterdäck) – Tyres adapted for winter road conditions. Winter tyres can be studded or non-studded. You are required to use winter tyres between December 1 and March 31, if winter road conditions apply.