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## Numbers and statistics

Much of the driver's licence theory is about numbers and statistics. You do not need to know exact numbers to pass the theory test, but you should have a good idea about them nonetheless. In this chapter we have compiled the most important numbers and statistics from the other chapters.

### The car

#### Braking distances in ideal conditions

• 30 km/h: 4.5 metres
• 50 km/h: 12.5 metres
• 70 km/h: 24.5 metres
• 90 km/h: 40.5 metres
• 110 km/h: 60.5 metres

#### Stopping distances in ideal conditions

• 30 km/h: 13.5 metres
• 50 km/h: 27.5 metres
• 70 km/h: 45.5 metres
• 90 km/h: 67.5 metres
• 110 km/h: 93.5 metres

#### Kilometres/hour to metres/second

• 10 km/h ≈ 3 m/s
• 20 km/h ≈ 6 m/s
• 30 km/h ≈ 8 m/s
• 40 km/h ≈ 11 m/s
• 50 km/h ≈ 14 m/s
• 60 km/h ≈ 17 m/s
• 70 km/h ≈ 19 m/s
• 80 km/h ≈ 22 m/s
• 90 km/h ≈ 25 m/s
• 100 km/h ≈ 28 m/s
• 110 km/h ≈ 31 m/s
• 120 km/h ≈ 33 m/s

#### Important numbers

• A private car may be fitted with a maximum nine seats (one seat for the driver and eight for passengers).
• A private cars must not exceed a total weight of 3,500 kg.
• The total vehicle width, including load, must not exceed 260 centimetres.
• The total vehicle length, including load, must not exceed 24 metres.
• Loads are permitted to project a maximum of 20 centimetres on either side
• Never pack more than 100 kg on a car's roof.
• The correct tow ball weight is usually between 50-100 kg.
• A light trailer must not exceed a total weight of 750 kg.
• Max 80 km/h applies for a car with a coupled trailer with brakes.
• Max 40 km/h usually applies for a car with a coupled trailer without brakes.
• When towing another vehicle, 30 km/h is the highest permitted speed.
• The tow line must be marked if it exceeds 2 metres .
• Wheel nuts need to be retightened 50-100 kilometres after a change of wheels.
• Most emergency wheels are designed for a maximum speed of 80 km/h.
• Summer tyres must have a tread depth of at least 1.6 mm.
• Winter tyres must have a tread depth of at least 3 mm.
• The brake fluid should be replaced every two years.
• It is your responsibility to ensure that children under the age of 15 are properly protected in the car.
• Airbags are designed to deploy in collisions at  20-30 km/h.
• As a driver you should not sit closer than 25 cm from the airbag.
• Children in the car under 135 cm must sit in a child safety device.
• New cars should be inspected for the first time after three years and for the second time after a total of five years.
• A car older than five years should be inspected every 14 months.

### People

#### Alcohol

• The limit for drunk driving is 0.2 per mille blood alcohol
• The limit for aggravated drunk driving is 1.0 per mille blood alcohol.
• At least 15,000 car journeys per day are made by drivers under the influence of alcohol.
• Approximately 70 people are killed and several hundred are seriously injured in alcohol-related traffic accidents every year.
• 50 % of all drivers killed in one-car accidents are affected by alcohol.
• 20-30 % of all drivers killed in traffic are affected by alcohol.

Alcohol affects us in the following way:

• 0.1-0.4 ‰ – Less inhibitions, overconfidence, and longer reaction time.
• 0.4-1.0 ‰ – Impaired vision and coordination.
• 1.0-2.0 ‰ – Double vision, clumsiness and balance problems.
• 2.0-3.5 ‰ – Fall into deep sleep.
• 3.5-5.0 ‰ – Go into a coma or die.

Spirit (40% alcohol) equivalents in beer and wine:

• 1 low-alcohol beer (33 cl) 2.2% = 1.8 cl spirits
• 1 mid-strength beer (50 cl) 3.5% = 4.3 cl spirits
• 1 full-strength beer (33 cl) 5.5% = 4.5 cl spirits
• 1 full-strength beer (50 cl) 7.2% = 9 cl spirits
• 1 glass of wine (15 cl) 13% = 4.9 cl spirits
• 1 bottle of wine (75 cl) 13% = 24.3 cl spirits

#### Important numbers

• The average driver's reaction time is one second.
• The eyes provide the brain with about 90% of the information you need to be able to drive.
• The field of view is normally 180 degrees.
• Peripheral vision makes up 98-99 % of the field of view.
• Direct vision makes up 1-2% of the field of view.
• To hold a class B driving license, you must have a visual acuity of at least 0.5.
• Hashish and marijuana affect a person for at least a week.
• Hashish and marijuana can stay in the blood for up to two months.
• Drivers 18 to 19 years-old are 5-6 times more likely to be involved in an accident than the average driver.
• Drivers over the age of 75 are 5-6 times more likely to be involved in an accident than the average driver.
• 20% of all traffic accidents are caused by fatigue.
• Of the total number of driver's licence holders, approximately 50% are men and 50% women.
• The probationary period on your first driver's licence (not including AM class licence) is 2 years.
• You must renew your B class driver's licence every ten years.

### The environment

#### Engine braking

1. Release the accelerator at 1,500-1,600 rpm
2. Downshift when the engine speed drops to 1,200-1,300 rpm

#### Engine pre-heaters

• Below -15 °C: 1.5 hours pre-heating
• 0 °C: 1 hour pre-heating
• 10 °C: 30 minutes pre-heating

### Driving in towns and cities

#### Important numbers

• If you hit an unprotected road user with your car at 30 km/h, the risk of the person being killed is 10%.
• If you hit an unprotected road user with your car at 50 km/h, the risk of the person being killed is 80%.
• 30% of accidents involving both motor vehicles and pedestrians occur at or near pedestrian crossings.
• The basic speed limit is 50 km/h in densely built-up areas.
• Mopeds class 1 are allowed to drive at a maximum speed of 45 km/h.
• Mopeds class 2 are allowed to drive at a maximum speed of 25 km/h.
• It is prohibited to park closer than 20 metres before and 5 metres after bus stops.
• It is prohibited to park closer than 10 metres before pedestrian crossings.

#### Time gain per 10 kilometres

If you increase your average speed by 10 km/h, the approximate time gain per 10 kilometres is:

• One minute per 10 kilometres at speeds below 90 km/h.
• 30 seconds per 10 kilometres at speeds above 90 km/h.

#### Important numbers

• Roads in Sweden normally have a clearance of at least 4.5 metres.
• The basic speed limit is 70 km/h outside of densely built-up areas.
• On country roads, the distance between verge markers is 50 metres.
• On motorways, the distance between verge markers is 100 metres.
• If you are forced to make an emergency stop, you should put out a warning triangle 50-100 metres behind your car.
• If you are forced to make an emergency stop after a sharp turn or a hilltop, you should put out a warning triangle at least 100 metres behind your car, before the turn or hill begins.
• A train travelling at high speed has a braking distance of 600-1,500 metres.
• Parking is prohibited within 30 metres of level crossings.

### Darkness and slippery conditions

#### Visibility in darkness

• Pedestrian wearing dark clothing: 25 metres
• Pedestrian wearing bright clothing: 60 metres
• Pedestrian wearing a reflector: 125 metres

• Pedestrian wearing dark clothing: 150 metres
• Pedestrian wearing bright clothing: 300 metres
• Pedestrian wearing a reflector: 450 metres

#### Important numbers

• You are 2-3 times more likely to be involved in an accident when driving in the dark than when driving in daylight.
• Almost 50% of all traffic accidents involving pedestrians occur in the dark.
• If you are dazzled your night vision will be impaired for about one minute.
• Between December 1 and March 31 you must use winter tyres, if winter road conditions apply.
• Between April 16 and September 30 you must not use studded winter tyres, unless winter road conditions apply or are expected.
• At +4°C and below roads can be slippery because of frost, snow, ice or cold.
• The risk of freezing rain is greatest at 0°C.

### Accidents

#### Car accident statistics (2022)

• Drivers and passengers killed: 107
• Seriously injured drivers and passengers: 849

#### Accident statistics for all road users (2022)

• Fatalities: 227
• Pedestrians killed: 27
• Seriously injured: 1,891
• Mildly injured: 13,370
• Wildlife accidents: 65,726

#### Important numbers

• 200-300 people are killed in traffic every year.
• 2,000-3,000 people are severely injured in traffic every year.
• 15,000-20,000 people are mildly injured in traffic every year.
• Approximately 70 people are killed and several hundred are seriously injured in alcohol-related traffic accidents every year.
• The accident risk is 2-3 times greater during darkness than during daylight.
• 75% of all road users killed are men.
• 60% of all accidents are caused by human error.*
• 50% of all drivers killed in one-car accidents are affected by alcohol.
• 40% of all drivers and passengers killed in traffic are not wearing a seat belt.
• 20-30% of all drivers killed in traffic are affected by alcohol.
• 30% of all traffic accidents in which someone is injured occur in the dark.
• 30% of all fatal accidents are one-car accidents.
• 20% of all traffic accidents are caused by fatigue.
• 15% of the population is involved in 50 % of all traffic accidents.

* Human error includes mistakes, routine errors and deliberate misconduct.